Welcome!

This website aims to tell you nearly everything you need (and may ever want) to know about convergent evolution. It allows y ou to explore the way that similar adaptive solutions have repeatedly evolved from unrelated starting points on the tree of life, as though following a metaphorical ‘map’.


We have identified hundreds of examples of convergence, so if you want to learn about convergence in sex (e.g. love-darts), eyes (e.g. camera-eyes in jellyfish), agriculture (e.g. in ants) or gliding (e.g. in lizards and mammals) then this is your best port of call.


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Any of the information presented in the Map of Life may be freely reproduced, as long as it is acknowledged fully. Citation details can be found at the bottom of each Topic page.

Read more about the project...

Both Moloch horridus and [...] Phrynosoma cornutum have the remarkable ability to transport water over their skin’s surface to the mouth where drinking occurs. Sherbrooke et al. (2007) Zoomorphology, vol. 126, p. 89

Spotlight on Research:

“Parallel and convergent evolution of the dim-light vision gene RH1 in bats (order: Chiroptera)”

Y-Y. Shen, J. Liu, D.M. Irwin, Y-P. Zhang 2010, Public Library of Science ONE, volume 5, e8838

At least for some bats, vision is relatively important, but all of them are active in low-light conditions. Low-light vision is mediated by the extremely sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin. The analysis of the rhodopsin gene RH1 in a number of echolocating and non-echolocating bats presented in this paper provides evidence for convergent evolution, with multiple parallel amino acid changes in the two groups.