Welcome!

This website aims to tell you nearly everything you need (and may ever want) to know about convergent evolution. It allows you to explore the way that similar adaptive solutions have repeatedly evolved from unrelated starting points, as though following a metaphorical ‘map’.


We have identified hundreds of examples of convergence, so if you want to learn about convergence in sex (e.g. love-darts), eyes (e.g. camera-eyes in jellyfish), agriculture (e.g. in ants) or gliding (e.g. in lizards and mammals) then this is your best port of call.

Any of the information presented in the Map of Life may be freely reproduced, as long as it is acknowledged fully. Citation details can be found at the bottom of each Topic, in the format: Map of Life – “Topic title”, Topic web page address, Month/Year downloaded

Read more about the project...

Although the evolution of snake fangs itself provides us with a window on convergence, the presence of fang-like teeth in lizards, therapsids and mammals provides an even broader and more remarkable perspective.

Spotlight on Research:

“For whales and seals the ocean is not blue: a visual pigment loss in marine mammals”

L. Peichl, G. Behrmann & R.H.H. Kröger 2001, European Journal of Neuroscience, volume 13, pages 1520-1528.

Monochromatic vision, where the retina contains only one type of cone, has evolved a number of times independently in mammals. Whilst it seems to be the exception among terrestrial species, this paper provides evidence for monochromacy being the rule in marine mammals.