Welcome!

This website aims to tell you nearly everything you need (and may ever want) to know about convergent evolution. It allows you to explore the way that similar adaptive solutions have repeatedly evolved from unrelated starting points, as though following a metaphorical ‘map’.


We have identified hundreds of examples of convergence, so if you want to learn about convergence in sex (e.g. love-darts), eyes (e.g. camera-eyes in jellyfish), agriculture (e.g. in ants) or gliding (e.g. in lizards and mammals) then this is your best port of call.

Any of the information presented in the Map of Life may be freely reproduced, as long as it is acknowledged fully. Citation details can be found at the bottom of each Topic, in the format: Map of Life – “Topic title”, Topic web page address, Month/Year downloaded

Read more about the project...

Birds, in the sense of flying descendants of feathered reptiles (a more expansive group than the "true" birds in today's skies), evolved several times from within the theropods.

Spotlight on Research:

“Tree-climbing mangrove crabs: a case of convergent evolution”

S. Fratini, M. Vannini, S. Cannicci & C.D. Schubart 2005, Evolutionary Ecology Research, volume 7, pages 219-233. 

A life on trees offers a number of advantages, such as shelter, food or escape from predators. Some tree-climbing mangrove crabs share certain morphological characters, including specially adapted walking legs, which were thought to result from common ancestry. The molecular analysis presented in this paper, however, provides evidence that an arboreal lifestyle has evolved several times independently in these crabs.